The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a space telescope designed to conduct infrared astronomy. It is the largest optical telescope in space. Its greatly improved infrared resolution and sensitivity allow it to see objects that are too old, distant, or faint to be seen by the Hubble Space Telescope. This is expected to enable a wide range of studies in the fields of astronomy and cosmology, such as the formation of the first galaxies and first galaxies and the detailed atmospheric characterization of habitable exoplanets
The project is being carried out by NASA in collaboration with the European Space Agency and the Canadian Space Agency. Toward this end, James E. Named after Webb. He was the NASA administrator from 1961 to 1968 during the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo programs
The Orion 5 launch was launched from French Guiana on December 25, 2021. It reached the Sun-Earth L2 Lagrangian point in January 2022
The first image obtained by this telescope was released to the public on July 11, 2022. This deep-field image, covering a small portion of the sky visible from the Southern Hemisphere, depicts the star cluster SMACS 0723 in the Voluntary galaxy, 4.6 billion light-years from Earth. The image was captured by the telescope’s Near Infrared Imaging Instrument (NIRCam). Thousands of galaxies are visible in this image, the highest-resolution image of the early universe ever taken
The total cost of the project, including research, is estimated at US$9.7 billion. 17 countries have collaborated for this research. The European Space Agency and the Canadian Space Agency are also involved
It will be equipped with a total of 18 hexagonal shaped convex Audis, the first Audi was installed on 26 November 2015. Each of these Audis weighs 40 kg and has a circumference of 1.3 meters. After all the Audis are installed, it will display as one large Audi measuring 6.5 meters
Hubble space telescope
The Hubble Space Telescope, commonly known as the Hubble, is a space telescope launched into orbit in April 1990 by the space shuttle Discovery. It is named after the American astronomer Edwin Hubble. It was not the first space telescope, but the Hubble is one of the largest telescopes and one of the best. Also, it was not only a research instrument but also helped in public relations activities for astronomy. It is a joint effort between NASA and the European Space Agency. It is also NASA’s flagship observatory, along with the Compton Comack Ray Observatory, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, and the Spitzer Space Telescope
A concept of space telescopes was proposed. The Hubble Space Telescope was funded in the 1970s with the intention of launching such a telescope in 1983. However, the project was delayed due to technical delays, financial problems and the Challenger crash. It was finally launched in 1990, but it was discovered that there was a fault in its primary probe. The telescope’s performance was greatly affected by this error. However, in 1993, Hubble’s quality was raised to the expected level by the revision mission program. Because Hubble is outside the Earth’s atmosphere, it can take images with very fine detail, free of background light interference. Hubble’s observations paved the way for many important solutions in astrophysics. For example, its observations have played a major role in determining the rate at which the universe is expanding
Hubble is the only telescope in space designed to be serviceable by astronauts. Four revision missions have been undertaken so far. The photographic defect was corrected by the first expedition in 1993. During Voyages 2, 3 and 4 various sub-modules were repaired and many of the observation instruments were replaced with more modern instruments. However, safety concerns following the Columbia space shuttle accident in 2003 halted the fifth mission. After heated public discussions, NASA decided to make one more final revision mission. It is currently scheduled for October 2008.
Planned repairs to Hubble will keep it operational until 2013. After that, the new James Webb Space Telescope will be launched. This new telescope is more capable than Hubble in many astronomical studies. However, it is sensitive to infrared observations and may be a complement to Hubble’s infrared observations.
Prepositions and prepositions
In 1923, Erman Obed, considered one of the fathers of modern rocketry along with Robert Goddard and Konsutandin Sialkowskyi, described in a book he wrote how a telescope could be launched into space by rockets.
The history of the Hubble Space Telescope can be traced back to 1946. In that year, astronomer Iliman Subitzer published a paper entitled Astronomical Applications of an Extraterrestrial Observatory. In this, he has explained about the advantages that space telescopes can have over the telescopes located on Earth. First, the angular resolution is limited by the perturbation of distant light as it passes through the atmosphere. Outside the Earth’s atmosphere, angular resolution is only affected by refraction, so clear images can be obtained. Current ground-based telescopes have an angular resolution of 0.5-1.0 arcseconds. A space telescope with a diameter of 2.5 meters has a theoretical resolution of 0.05 arcseconds. Second, outside the atmosphere, infrared and ultraviolet radiation can also be observed. On Earth they are largely absorbed by the atmosphere
Spitzer has spent a great deal of time promoting the need for a space telescope. In 1962, the United States National Academy of Sciences, in a report, recommended that a space telescope be developed as part of the space program. In 1965, Spitzer was selected to chair a committee to define the science objectives of a large space telescope.
Space-based astronomy began on a small scale after World War II, when scientists began to take advantage of wartime advances in missile technology. The first UV spectrum of the Sun was obtained in 1946. In 1962, the United Kingdom launched an Earth-orbiting solar probe. In 1966, NASA launched its first Earth Orbiting Observatory (OAO). OAO-1’s batteries failed, halting the project after three days. It was followed by the launch of OAO-2 in 1968. It observed stars and constellations in ultraviolet light. Although it was planned for only one year, it operated beyond that until 1972.
In astronomy, the OAO projects well illustrated the primary contribution of space-based observatories. Subsequently, in 1968, NASA began a project to develop a splash telescope with a diameter of 3 meters. Scheduled for launch in 1979, it was tentatively named the Large Orbiting Telescope or Large Space Telescope (LST). It was felt that if such cost-effective schemes were to be of long-term use, revisional travel plans were necessary. Also, plans to build reusable space shuttles indicated that the technologies for such corrective missions would soon be available
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